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It looks like the answer is "it depends". State universities have to provide due process even in non-criminal cases ("life, liberty and property"), but private universities -- to the extent they aren't agents of the state -- do not, except if they explicitly -- i.e. contractually -- promise due process to their students.
Once the student's due process rights are established, then the legal haggling over what exactly included in that rubric can start.
Many chemicals that we are exposed to through food, water, plastics, personal care products, and lifestyle choices can mimic and alter hormones in the body. These chemicals are called hormone-disrupting compounds and have been linked to reproductive and other health problems. Most of the science is focused on the health effects of these chemicals in women and children. But they also affect men and are starting to cause concern that men's reproductive and hormonal health is at risk. Here is review of some of the recent studies linking chemicals in the environment to hormonal changes in men.
Pesticides Block or Mimic Male Hormones
A recent study published in the Journal Environmental Health Perspectives discovered that pesticides, some previously unknown to disrupt hormones, had antiandrogenic effects in men. Scientists at the University of London studied 37 pesticides for in vitro androgen receptor (AR) antagonism. Of these, 14 were previously reported to be AR antagonists, 4 were predicted AR antagonists, 6 were predicted to not be AR antagonists, and 13 had unknown activity. All 14 pesticides with previous evidence of AR antagonism were confirmed as antiandrogenic, and 9 previously untested pesticides were identified as antiandrogenic. They were: dimethomorph, fenhexamid, quinoxyfen, cyprodinil, l-cyhalothrin, pyrimethanil, fludioxonil, azinphos-methyl, and pirimiphos-methyl. In addition, 7 compounds were classified as androgenic.1
Comment: This study is significant because it focuses on pesticides currently being used and found on fruits and vegetables. Past studies focused on pesticides that are no longer registered for use in the US and developed countries. In this study, 30 out of 37 pesticides tested altered male hormones. Most of the newly discovered hormone disruptors are applied to fruits and vegetables. Many of these had never been tested for hormone disruption activity. The researchers screened the pesticides using in vitro assays, which use human cells to check whether the pesticides activate or inhibit hormone receptors in cells. It is not known how these pesticides will behave in the human body at concentrations from consuming fruits and vegetables. The researchers strongly recommended that all pesticides in use today be screened to check if they block testosterone, which is critical to men's reproductive health and aging. This idea faces major opposition in the US from the pesticide industry. In the US, the Environmental Protection Agency is responsible for testing chemicals found in food and drinking water to see if they interfere with hormones. None of the newly discovered pesticides with hormonal activity is included in the EPA's testing program, which means that they are not currently screened and there are no plans to do so.[/u]
Bisphenol A Affects Men's Thyroid and Reproductive Hormones
One hundred sixty-seven men were recruited from an infertility clinic at Massachusetts General Hospital. Men aged 18 to 55 without postvasectomy status participated in the study. Bisphenol A (BPA) was measured in a single urine sample of the 167 men, and blood hormone levels were measured the same day. Seventy-five of the men submitted a second urine sample and 4 men a third sample for measurement of BPA. These were collected one week to two months after the original sample. Hormones tested for were testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), inhibin B, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, free T4, total T3, and TSH. A free androgen index (FAI) was calculated as the ratio of total testosterone to SHBG. Results of this study showed that in spot urine samples collected on the same day as blood samples, urinary BPA concentrations were inversely associated with serum levels of FSH, inhibin B, FSH:inhibin B ration, and E2:T ratio. When one or two urine samples were collected in the weeks or months following collection of the blood sample, then the inverse association involving BPA and FSH and inhibin B weakened. Inverse associations were also found between BPA and SHBG, FAI, estradiol and TSH. The results of this study indicate that BPA exposure may be associated with altered hormone levels in men.2
Comment: BPA has long been known to be a hormone-disrupting chemical and linked to many health conditions in women, including infertility. The main way that we are exposed to BPA is through food and water. BPA can leach into food from the protective internal epoxy resin coatings of canned foods and from products such as polycarbonate plastic tableware, food storage containers, water bottles, and baby bottles.3 This recent study looks at BPA and men's hormones. BPA was collected in the urine from men presenting to an infertility clinic in Massachusetts. Urine is a good measurement for BPA, since it is rapidly metabolized and excreted from the body after exposure. Nine men were excluded from the study because they were already taking medications that alter hormone levels, such as finasteride or Clomid and GnRH, testosterone, or prednisone. The study's finding that BPA is inversely associated with serum E2:T ratio is significant, since estradiol is produced through aromatization of testosterone. A reduction in the E2:T ratio is considered a marker for decreased aromatase activity. This had been shown in the past in animal studies but not humans. BPA is known to have antiandrogenic activity in a number of studies and is confirmed here in regard to its decrease in FAI, E2, and TSH. Of course, there are several limitations to this study, which the authors point out; but given the widespread exposure to BPA and its known adverse effects on hormones and reproductive health, steps should be taken to minimize or eliminate the general population's exposure.
Phthalates from Plastics Have Negative Effects on Men's Hormones and Fertility
A recent study soon to be released in the Journal of Andrology has linked several phthalate monoesters to changes in men's hormones. This study includes men from two large ongoing studies looking at the environmental links to health. One of these, the Study for Future Families (SFF) is a multicenter study of pregnant women and their male partners, conducted at prenatal clinics affiliated with university hospitals in five US cities between 1999 and 2005. The second study included men who were male partners in infertile couples seeking evaluation at the Vincent Memorial Obstetrics and Gynecology Service, Massachusetts General Hospital, between January 2000 and May 2004.
In both studies the men completed a questionnaire and gave urine, blood, and semen specimens. Information was collected on demographics, medical history, and lifestyle factors. Four hundred and twenty-five men in each study population provided urine and blood samples. Urinary phthalate metabolites were measured in men, along with serum hormone levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), inhibin B, estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHGB), and a free androgen index (FAI). Urinary concentrations of three metabolites of DEHP (mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate [MEHP], mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate [MEHHP], and mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate [MEOHP]) were inversely associated with the free androgen index (FAI) and calculated free testosterone (FT). Urinary concentrations of MEHHP and MEOHP were positively associated with SHBG, and MEHP was inversely associated with E2. No other phthalate metabolites were associated with serum hormones, consistent with results in each population. The study concludes that exposure to DEHP at environmental concentrations is associated with declines in free testosterone, both FAI and FT, and serum estradiol (E2). The other phthalate monoester metabolites examined (MEP, MBP, and MBzP) were not associated with any reproductive hormone changes.4
Comment: This is the first study to examine the associations between urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and reproductive hormone levels in a large study including both fertile men and male partners in infertile couples. This study suggests that DEHP has some antiandrogenic effects that alter male hormones and could affect fertility. Previous studies, including animal studies, have shown this same effect and proposed that DEHP is associated with reduced aromatase activity.4 Although this study looks at a large cohort of men, one limitation is that the study population from infertility clinics is not representative of the general population. However, according to data from the most recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), metabolites of DEHP are in 99% of the general population.5 DEHP is used in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and many men are exposed to it without being aware. DEHP migrates into food from plastics during processing and storage. It is in other products, including flooring, wall coverings, furniture, footwear, baggage, and packaging. Medical devices made of flexible PVC, such as IV bags and tubing, can leach the phthalate DEHP into patients.3 It is possible for physicians to order IV tubing and bags free of phthalates, while men should try to make healthful lifestyle choices by minimizing the use of plastics and plastic products.
These three studies highlight the concern about chemicals in the environment and men's health. Men are exposed to bisphenol A and phthalates on a daily basis from the use of plastic beverage bottles, plastic storage containers, plastic wrap on food, and canned foods. Men are exposed to pesticides through consumption of conventional fruits and vegetables that contain pesticide residue. While these chemicals have long been known to cause hormone disruption in animals, research has also shown that they affect humans. In the past, scientists have focused on the health effects of these chemicals on women and children, including infants. These three recent articles highlight the emerging concern for men. While scientist continue to bicker and claim that more research needs to be done, and industry responsible for putting these chemicals into products insist that they are safe, the public is starting to demand that they be removed from the environment. Some states are taking regulatory action that the federal government has resisted doing. For example, seven states have banned BPA from consumer products sold within their borders. Learn more about these and other hormone disrupting chemicals in my book, 8 Weeks to Women's Wellness.
1. Orton F et al. Widely used pesticides with previously unknown endocrine activity revealed as in vitro antiandrogens. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119:794-800.
2. Meeker JD, Calafat AM, Hauser R. Urinary bisphenol-A concentrations in relation to serum thyroid and reproductive hormone levels in men from an infertility clinic. Environ Sci Technol. 2010;44(4):1458-1465.
3. Marchese M. 8 Weeks to Women's Wellness: The Detoxification Plan for Breast Cancer, Endometriosis, Infertility, and Other Women's Health conditions. Petaluma, CA: Smart Publ.; 2011.
4. Mendiola J et al. Urinary concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites and serum reproductive hormones: Pooled analysis of fertile and infertile men. J Androl. Epub May 19, 2011.
5. Aylward LL, Hays S, Kirman C. Urinary DEHP Metabolites and Food Fasting Time in NHANES. Consumer Products Safety Commission. September 8, 2010. Accessed online July 25, 2011. http://www.cpsc.gov/about/cpsia/chap/urinaryDEHP.pdf.
Marianne Marchese, ND
"Good morning, XX:
I had the opportunity to speak with my Director about your concerns. We did not feel there was a violation of Title IX. As we discussed, you were concerned there were no clubs or organizations which catered to men exclusively. You had noticed there were women's organizations on campus and thought men should have the same types of organizations.
We did some research for you. If you were interested in starting a student organization which addressed your concerns, you can do so by clicking on the link below:
Thank you for bringing your concerns to our office.
Carlo Sanchez, PHR
Senior EEO AA Consultant
Office of Equity and Inclusion
Arizona State University
Dear Mr. Sanchez,
Your response is not acceptable. ASU is currently discriminating against men, and under Title IX that is a violation. It is not my responsibility to create equity and inclusion at ASU, that is yours. This is not about student organizations this about university programs.
Gender warfare and discrimination degrades public harmony and undermines the very seed of society at all levels, which is the harmonious relationship between opposing genders.
India has had a unique receptivity to the men's rights movement, unlike other nations whose media often instinctively responds with estrangement, outrage, ridicule and accusation to men's rights activism. India's men's rights movement has somewhere around thirty thousand members today, and help lines in many major cities across India. It has rapidly grown in the past decade, and is a nascent uprising against human rights violations and gender discrimination (Kumar, 2011).
"The Indian Judicial system is already dysfunctional with more than 30 million pending court cases. Breakdown of age old family system due to harmful state policies made under feminist pressure can lead to increase in crime rates and mental health problems... One of the aims of men's rights movement in India is to make the Government establish a National Commission for Men and a separate Ministry for improvement of condition of males. Another area of interest is establishment of Male Studies courses and departments in Indian Universities" (Kumar, 2011). While the constitution of India is written stating that nobody can be discriminated on the basis of gender, laws which violate that limitation holding that only men can be perpetrators of rape and women only victims, dowry laws, sexual offenses, and laws protect "the modesty of women" whereas nothing is mentioned of "the modesty of men" (Sharma, 2013)
Gender dynamics in India are old and ancient and passed down through cultural stories. Men in India are often in the past and present seen as protectors of women, obligated to give up their lives to help women if necessary. "Protector day" is celebrated every year in India. An Indian cultural story of King Shantanu in the epic Mahābhārata tells of how the king does a wrong for breaking a promise never to question his wife's actions even when murdering her own children (Desphande, 2013).
"A dowry is the money, goods, or estate that a woman brings to a marriage. (A dowry consisting mainly of linen and clothing, or the contents of a hope chest is called a trousseau.) Dowry contrasts with bride price, which is paid by the groom or his family to the bride's parents, and with dower, which is property given to the bride herself by the groom at the time of marriage" (Dowry, 2013)"
Dowries were progressively outlawed in India in the 20th century (The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961, 2013, however misuse of anti-dowry laws by women, in lieu of Section 498a of the Indian Penal Code have been a problem in India. "According to this law, if a woman goes to police and complains of mental and physical harassment by her husband and his parents, siblings and relatives, then all the accused are presumed to be guilty until proven innocent and are jailed without evidence or investigation" (Kumar, 2011). While then nonetheless more than 90% of the accused are found to be not guilty. (Kumar, 2011).
The Dowry death law Section 304B of the Indian Penal Code, "considers any unnatural death of a woman within 7 years of marriage as dowry death - meaning it assumes the husband and his relatives as guilty for her death and they are put behind bars immediately (Desphande, 2013).
According to Nagendar Sharma reporting for the Hindustian Times, "Only men can be booked for rape" regardless of the fact that men can also be raped violently by women (Sharma, 2013) (Cuspis, 2013) (National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, 2010). "The government is also expected to propose enhanced jail terms for those found guilty of outraging the modesty of women and using obscene gestures or words against them" (Sharma, 2013). Women's organizations have lobbied to the exclusion of men under the protection under the law (Sharma, 2013). The minimum penalty for rape under this law is 20 years and the death penalty if the matter is more serious (Cuspis, 2013).
Misandry and false statistics is also a problem in India where Indian feminists report numbers of victimizations of women that strongly diverges with the National Crime Records Bureau (Kumar, 2011).
Indian courts rarely recognize the role of the father in the upbringing of children, when partners therefore divorce and custody battles over the children follow, there are instances where fathers are only allowed to see their own children once a month for 30-60 minutes (Kumar, 2011).
Parental abduction of children is also a problem for Indian men living in the US, Canada or Europe who have their children taken away from them back to India, US, Canadian or European court orders are usually countered by false charges of dowry harassment. (Kumar, 2011).
Male victims of domestic abuse and suicide rarely get support or protection, police often refuse to take complaints, men often tolerate abuse under fear of a dowry harassment false accusation, which also imprisons his family of origin. Male suicides are on the rise where eighteen thousand compared with eleven thousand women commit suicide due to "family problems". The suicides of married men and women are much higher, but again here higher for men (Kumar, 2011).
"According to the National Crime Records Bureau, Ministry of Home Affairs - 62,433 married men and a total of 87,839 men committed suicide in 2011 -- and this figure is increasing every year. The same bureau report shows that 92% of all crime happens against men and the society is still not even considering issues of men as a topic worth attention" (Desphande, 2013).
"Slap your alcoholic or wife-beating husband in public and get a cash reward of Rs 1,000 per whack -- up to a maximum of Rs 10,000" this was or is an 'incentive scheme' an Andhra Pradesh minister is offering harassed wives in his constituency (Radhakrishna, 2011). The more beating the more money, indeed it appears "the more a culture embraces special treatment of women, the more draconian they invariably become against men." (Elam, 2012).
" 'Whoever, intending to insult the modesty of any woman, utters any word, makes any sound or gesture, or exhibits any object, intending that such word or sound shall be heard, or that such gesture or object shall be seen by such woman, or intrudes upon the privacy of such woman, shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both", reads Section 509 of the Indian Penal Code... Section 354 of the Indian Penal Code prescribes a maximum sentence of two years in prison to a person convicted for outraging the modesty of a woman" (Challa, 2010).
Misandry in the media denigrating men, encouraging slapping kicking and punching men as laudable acceptable and humorous behavior is also common in India (Challa, 2010).
Women are given their own private travel compartments, and ticket lines, for public transport such as busses and trains usually seating in the front half, men cannot sit in these seats and if they do they are sometimes beaten by women (Sharma, 2013) (Women only passenger car, 2013) (Men are beaten, 2010). There has been at least one instance of a man being physically thrown off a moving train "by a constable for boarding the ladies compartment" who was then taken to a hospital to recover (PTI, 2010), the rampant hostility towards men shown in the cited videos allude to the fact that these incidents are not uncommon (Men Beaten, 2010).
Like in the west in India there is also gender discrimination in the form of price fixing for entry into clubs whereas women are given free admission and men must pay higher prices for entry (Sharma, 2013).
Public outrage of victimization of women does not stop short of calling for the victimization of men like public beating and castration (Sharma, 2013). When famous women cry rape and then recant, public outage is only afforded to the accused and never the false accuser (Sharma, 2013).
As you can see here there is an exhaustion of men's inequity issues in India. How is this a sustainability problem? As my thesis stated, gender warfare and discrimination degrades public harmony and undermines the very seed of society itself at all levels, which is: the relationship between male and female. In Matthew 12:25 it says: "Every kingdom divided against itself is headed for destruction, and no city or house divided against itself will stand" (Holman Christian Standard Bible, 2003). Many of these issues carry health, policy, social or cultural, equity, discrimination, implications which thus put undue stress on institutions which seek the elevation of women over men, instead of equality on behalf of both by government policy and city infrastructures. This wastes resources, time, money, and efficiency, degrades the quality of life, both public and private. What these above examples illuminate is an extreme sort of cultural prejudice against males in India. This I would suggest is also mirrored in the lack of coverage of these mentioned issues in the literature assigned to this course; in so far I've seen (although one suggested male migrant workers lack sufficient housing in New Delhi) which carries a heavy gynocentric feminist party line of rhetoric. India's prejudice causes needless conflict and reduces efficiency of society and can even bring it to a crisis undermining business as usual, fostering political corruption as tribal or power politics pervade rather than the service of all by a just unbiased government mediator which is it's responsibility. Legitimacy of government is also undermined in times of oppression of a class or group or even individual. Government oppression causes crime rates to increase and the criminal justice system to be stagnated as suggested by the research. Non-representation and support of collective and individual citizens, who are kept oppressed rather than served by government will not further governmental power or effectiveness but in fact plant the seed of it's own dissolution and disunity.
The possible absence of this information in our assigned reading for this class mainly consisting of peer reviewed articles does not prove the incredibility of these men's issues as critics of the opposing narrative may suggest, and in fact suggests the contrary: the incredibility of these sources of information on the issues of men's rights and equity if not the topic of gender itself. Owing to the fact that this information illuminates an extreme bias, and power conflict sponsored by government policy itself: the standard of legitimacy in any society, suggests such interests may run quite deep nationally if not internationally.
Whether you believe my research or not, it's critical that it be recognized the destructiveness of gender discrimination in government policy. Inequality in society cannot be remedied by creating greater inequality on one side of the scale to correct it. Such simple-minded strategies do pay no respect to the complexity of social issues, notwithstanding the patriarchy theory offered and popularized by the now dominant feminist establishment.
All laws must be made gender neutral and audited off the books for gender-neutral enforcement. That is there may be biases acculturated at one level or another in India, however where it concerns government jurisdiction such biases must be not written or accounted for in government policy or attempted to be corrected. Doing so violates the non-partisan purpose of government: which is to serve all not lend particular advantages to any group or individual. It is up to NGOs to invest their own interests in ameliorating what they see to be particular inequality. Writing inequality into government policy to correct for inequality will not in fact correct it, but only exacerbate and twist it into an even more monstrous kind of inequality, increasing crime, violence and conflict in society. Universal equality is not an appropriate abstraction to apply to human affairs, men and women can only be equal under the law, any attempt to force equality through affirmative action, violation of individual or collective rights creates discrimination and conflict at an even deeper level, in the long run it will not produce fruitful results, and it has shown to be quite destructive so far and getting worse.
Two wrongs don't make a right. You can change a government policy overnight but a culture and people especially to the likes of India: one of the most ancient civilizations, cannot be changed suddenly, but only reformed by gentle gradual unceasing influence over long periods of time. Private advantages of women can be sold through NGOs, businesses, private organizations etc. but government must shrug off any unequal special pandering to any particular interests men or women. If not, there will be never ending power struggle and dehumanization as you have already seen. As of now we live in a global society that has tried these measures and the crisis and problems that exist today as headlines on the news are the result. Politics cannot be a football game one team versus another; that is not a civilization that is a brawl.
More research will be done on how these gender issues affect more mundane sustainability issues such as water, waste, food, resources, urban farming, and closing the urban loop etc.
Challa, U. (2010) The modesty of man. A Voice for Men. Retrieved from: http://www.avoiceformen.com/feminism/feminist-governance-feminism/the-modesty-of-man/
Cuspis, D. (2013) Indian government: men don't matter. A Voice for Men. Retrieved from: http://www.avoiceformen.com/misandry/indian-government-men-dont-matter/
Desphande. A. (2013) Misandry in India. A Voice for Men. Retrieved from: http://www.avoiceformen.com/misandry/misandry-in-india/
Dowry (2013) Wikipedia. Retrived from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dowry
Elam, P. (2012) Reaching out to India. A Voice for Men. Retrieved from: http://www.avoiceformen.com/feminism/feminist-lies-feminism/reaching-out-to-india/
Holman Christian Standard Bible, (2003) Holman Bible Publishers, 127 Ninth Avenue North, Nashville, Tennessee 37234. ISBN: 1-58640-108-4.
Kumar. A (2011) Men's movement in India: story of Save Indian Family movement. Bangalore, India. Foundation for Male Studies. 333 Mamaroneck Avenue - 444 White Plains, NY 10605. Retrieved from: http://www.malestudies.org/pdf/kumar.pdf
Men are beaten up by women in train, India- travelling in women compartments - Shame (2010) YouTube. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zxJRxFMjDUk
Men Beaten off Womans train in Deli India emanzipation in indien (2010) YouTube. Retrieved from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=XcPFz_wzu4k
National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (2010) Centers for Disease Control. 4770 Buford Hwy, NE MS F-63 Atlanta, GA 30341-3717. Retrived from: http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/nisvs/
PTI (2010) Constable 'throw' passenger out of moving train. The Times of India. Retrived from: http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2010-12-15/kolkata/28244162_1_constable-ladies-compartment-train
Radhakrishna, G. S. (2011) Slap hubby, win Rs 1000 - minister starts scheme for harassed wives. The Telegraph. Retrived from: http://www.telegraphindia.com/1110926/jsp/nation/story_14554827.jsp
Sharma, A. (2013) A passage from India. A Voice For Men. Retrieved from: http://www.avoiceformen.com/misandry/a-passage-from-india/
The Dowry Prohibition Act , 1961 (2013) The Anti dowry Movement. Retrieved from: http://www.antidowry.org/dp-act-1961.html
Women only passenger car (2013) Wikipedia. Retrieved from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women-only_passenger_car